## From Newton's mechanics to Euler's equations

*Olivier Darrigol*, CNRS, REHSEIS, Paris

*Uriel Frisch*, Université de Nice, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Nice

The Euler equations of hydrodynamics, which appeared in their
present form in the 1750s, did not emerge in the middle of a
desert. We shall see in particular how the Bernoullis contributed much
to the transmutation of hydrostatics into hydrodynamics, how
d'Alembert was the first to describe fluid motion using partial
differential equations and a general principle linking statics and
dynamics, and how Euler developed the modern concept of internal
pressure field which allowed him to apply Newton's second law to
infinitesimal elements of the fluid.

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